Other microphone parameters
Other useful microphone parameters include self-noise, maximum SPL (sound pressure level), and dynamic range.
Self-noise is the sound level that creates the same output voltage as the inherent noise of the microphone. Therefore, it is where the sound disappears and becomes undistinguishable from background noise. This is actually the lowest point of the microphone's dynamic range. We need to consider this parameter when we plan to record very quiet sounds. The lower the self-noise is and the better the microphone will preform.
Maximum SPL is the maximum sound pressure level (volume) that a microphone can withstand before generating harmonic distortion. In particular, a distortion up to 1% is considered acceptable, as it is practically inaudible. Higher levels become noticeable.
The dynamic range is the difference in SPL between the noise floor and the maximum SPL.
Another variable, which is not intrinsic in the microphone, but comes into play when we record, is the proximity effect. A disproportionate low-frequency volume boost occurs as a microphone is moved closer to the sound source. Therefore, if we want to enhance basses, we need to do a close recording. However, we have to keep in mind that condenser microphones will also grab every detail of a close sound source, because of their short transient response. Therefore, they will increase dryness.